Scientists have now reason to think that an ancient 4000-year-old stone monolith in England was likely an astronomical calendar, according to new archaeological evidence.
The 2.2 metre high monument, located in the Peak District National Park, has a striking, right-angled triangular shape that slants up towards geographic south.
The orientation and inclination of the slope is aligned to the altitude of the Sun at mid-summer.
The researchers from the Nottingham Trent University believe that the monolith was set in place to give symbolic meaning to the location through the
changing seasonal illuminations.
The rare example of a monolith is located at Gardomís Edge, a striking millstone grit ridge less than an hourís drive from Manchester.
The researchers have carried out a microtopography survey of the surface surrounding the monolith.
Their findings indicate the presence of packing stones around the base of the monolith, evidence that it was placed carefully in position.
They have also carried out 3-D modelling of illumination of the stone through the seasons, adapting for changes in the Earthís tilt to the
ecliptic plane over four millennia.
The landscape surrounding the stone harbours many ancient monuments such as Bronze Age roundhouses, a late Neolithic enclosure, and other traces of a
long lasting human occupation.
The researchers believe that the stone is also late Neolithic, set in place around 2000 BC.
"Given the sensitivity of the site, we can't probe under the surface of the soil.
However, through our survey, we have found a higher density of packing stones on one side, supporting the case that the stone has been orientated
intentionally," said Dr. Brown.
This ancient monolith's triangular shape and flat, north-facing side are just some of the reasons scientists think it was positioned
on purpose to mark the changing seasons.
Credit: Dr. Brown,Nottingham Trent University
The 3-D modelling shows that during the winter half-year, the slanted side of the stone would remain in permanent shadow; during most
of the summer half-year it would only be illuminated during the morning and afternoon; close to midsummer it would be illuminated all day.
The researchers are currently backing up the modelling work by gathering contemporary photographic evidence of the stone.
"The stone would have been an ideal marker for a social arena for seasonal gatherings," said Dr. Brown.
"It's not a sundial in the
sense that people would have used it to determine an exact time. We think that it was set in position to give a symbolic meaning to its location,
a bit like the way that some religious buildings are aligned in a specific direction for symbolic reasons."
The researchers hope that the new evidence will support the case for a wider archaeological survey of the site.
"The use of shadow casting in monuments of this period is quite rare in the British Isles," said Dr. Brown.
New Grange, Ireland
"But there are some examples including New Grange, Ireland, and some Clava cairns in the north-east of Scotland that have been proposed to include the
intentional use of shadows.
Both are associated to burial sites using the symbolism of a cyclic light and shadow display to represent eternity. Given the proximity of the
Neolithic enclosure and possible ritual importance of this site, the Gardom's Edge monolith could be another such example."
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Human Noise Has A Negative Effect On Plants
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But human clamor doesn't just affect animals.
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Twenty five years ago, on 1987 February 23, the brightest supernova of modern times was observed in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
The collision occurred at speeds near 60 million kilometers per hour and shock-heats the ring material causing it to glow.
Over time, astronomers have watched and waited for the expanding debris from this tremendous stellar explosion to crash into previously expelled material...
Solar Tornadoes As Wide As Five Earths Discovered
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"This is perhaps the first time that such a huge solar tornado is filmed by an imager. Previously much smaller solar
tornadoes were found my SOHO satellite. But they were not filmed," says Dr. Xing Li, of Aberystwyth University.