Large Earthwork At Wichita Site In Kansas – Is It Long-Lost Native American City Of Etzanoa?
Conny Waters – MessageToEagle.com – A Dartmouth-led study using multisensor drones has revealed a large circular earthwork at what may be the long-lost Native American city of Etzanoa, an archaeological site near Wichita, Kansas.
Wichita dwellings had a distinctive shape and were constructed from straw and wood. Source
Archaeologists speculate that the site was visited by a Spanish expedition, led by Juan de Oñate, a controversial conquistador, in 1601.
The earthwork may be the remains of a so-called “council circle,” as it is similar to several other circular earthworks in the region, according to the study’s findings published in American Antiquity.
Left: Drone-acquired orthoimage of the site showing major features discussed in the paper. Right: Thermal images mosaic collected from 11:15 pm-12:15 am. (Images from Figure 6 of the study). Credit: by Jesse Casana, Elise Jakoby Laugier, and Austin Chad Hill.
For many decades, archaeologists have tried to rediscover Etzanoa. The location, size and significance of Etzanoa — or the “Great Settlement,” as Spanish explorers labeled it after their 1601 expedition there — had become lost in the mists of time.
In June 2015, archaeologist Dr. Don Blakeslee led a wide-ranging field study in central and southern Kansas. Now, lead author, Jesse J. Casana, a professor and chair of the department of anthropology at Dartmouth says:
“Our findings demonstrate that undiscovered monumental earthworks may still exist in the Great Plains. You just need a different archeological approach to recognize them. Our results are promising in suggesting that there may be many other impressive archaeological features that have not yet been documented if we look hard enough.”
Etzanoa: Long-Lost Native American City Discovered In Kansas After 400 Years
Archaeological features have various thermal effects. After the ground cools at nighttime, things below the ground cool and emit heat at different rates, enabling researchers to identify features based on thermal infrared radiation.
Etzanoa had approximately 20,000 inhabitants who lived in dwellings similar in shape to beehives.
The researchers obtained thermal and multispectral imagery of the site using drones.
The 18-hectare area of the site where the drone survey was conducted is currently home to a ranch property in the lower Walnut River valley, which has been used as a pasture. Topographically, the area is flat with no visible archaeological features.
Yet, imagery shows that underground there is an ancient, circular-shaped ditch measuring 50 meters wide and approximately 2 meters thick that has been infilled. As the soil erodes, it fills up the ditch with a different type of soil than was there before and therefore retains water differently giving it unique thermal properties. The water retention levels also impact vegetation.
This map was drawn in 1602 by a Wichita Indian who was captured by the Spanish. The circular figures represent native settlements. Etzanoa is depicted by two circles with a diagonal line between them at the top center of the map. Image Credit: General Archives of Maps and Plans, Mexico City. Image credit: Archaeological Conservancy
Using near-infrared imagery, the researchers were able to identify areas that had been infilled because grass growth was more vigorous. As the study reports, the results provide evidence for what may have been a “single, sprawling population center” back in its day.
To confirm that the findings were not an anomaly, the team collected a time series of aerial and satellite images of the area from the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other federal agencies.
Aerial view of the site. The image is from Figure 3 of the study. Credit: Jesse Casana.
They found that the circular feature was “faintly visible in June 2015 and July 2017 but not in June 2012 or February 2017.”
The debate is widespread as to what council circles were used for, whether they were astronomical in nature or made for ceremonial, political, and/or defense purposes.
“While we may never know what the council circles were used for or their significance, new archaeological methods allow us to see that people made these earthworks,” Casana added.
Written by Conny Waters – MessageToEagle.com – AncientPages.com Staff Writer